Original Research Article
Year: 2019 | Month: April | Volume: 9 | Issue: 4 | Pages: 107-119
Describing Congenital Anomalies among Newborns in Kenya: A Hospital Based Study
Ruth Wagathu1, Dr. Abednego Ongeso2
1MSc.N - Midwifery and Obstetric Nursing (The University of Nairobi, Kenya), B.Sc.N (The University of Nairobi, Kenya), P.O Box 81-20319 South Kinangop
2PhD in Community Health and Development - Reproductive Health (Great Lakes University of Kisumu - Kenya), MSc.N - Maternal and Neonatal Health (Moi, Kenya), BSc.N. (Moi, Kenya), Lecturer, School of Nursing Sciences University of Nairobi
Corresponding Author: Ruth Wagathu
Background: Congenital Anomalies (Birth defects) are functional, metabolic and even structural deficiencies that are present before or at birth. They are a major contributor to perinatal and infant morbidity and mortality. In Kenya, there is little empirical data on congenital anomalies.
Study objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of congenital anomalies; and to describe the associated risk factors.
Methodology: This was a hospital based descriptive, cross-sectional study design. 52 respondents were recruited for this study using the Fischer’s formula. A researcher-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data from structured questionnaires was entered, checked, cleaned and analyzed. Descriptive analysis using means, frequency and proportions was computed.
Results: Analysis of the data showed that among the 315 neonates admitted in Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, the prevalence of Congenital Anomalies was 19.4% (61). The Musculoskeletal system was the most affected (38.5%). 88.4% of the mothers were below 35years of age and 61.5% were not working. The prevalence of Congenital Anomalies was more among neonates born vaginally.
Conclusion: The prevalence of Congenital Anomalies was high compared to the global prevalence of 3-7%. Congenital anomalies were more likely to be associated with younger maternal age, being of low socio-economic class, vaginal delivery and the neonate being a first born.
Key words: Congenital anomalies, Pattern, Prevalence, Risk factors, Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital