International Journal of Health Sciences and Research

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Original Research Article

Year: 2019 | Month: March | Volume: 9 | Issue: 3 | Pages: 225-237

PCC-R Measures for Pressure Consonants of Kannada Language: A Study on 3-4 Year Old Typically Developing Children and Children with Repaired Cleft Lip and Palate

Sahana Muralikrishna1, Dr Pushpavathi M.2

1Assistant Professor, Samvaad Institute of Speech and Hearing, Hebbal, Bengaluru.
2Director, All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, Manasagangothri, Mysore- 570006

Corresponding Author: Sahana Muralikrishna


The articulation and phonological skills play an important role in early linguistic development. The quantitative articulation analysis might provide ample evidence to predict a child’s linguistic competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mean PCC-R (Percentage of consonants correct-Revised) scores of 3-4 year typically developing children and children with repaired cleft lip and palate (RCLP) using a developed word list of pressure consonants of Kannada language. The word list consisting of 14 pressure consonants (Stops: /p/, /b/, /t̥/, /d̥/, / t̪/, /d̪/, /k/, /g/; fricatives: /s/, /∫/, /h/, /v/ and affricates: /ʧ/, /ʤ/) of Kannada language in preceding and following contexts were used to investigate the PCC-R scores among typically developing children and children with RCLP. The mean PCC-R scores were also compared between the two groups. The responses elicited from the participants of the study were audio-recorded and the responses were transcribed using IPA transcription. The responses were tabulated using SPSS software (version 21) and the mean, standard deviation, median and quartile range were derived using descriptive statistics. The findings of the study revealed that most of the pressure consonants of Kannada language were acquired within the age of 3-4 years. The Mann Whitney U test revealed that there was a significant difference in PCC-R scores between typically developing children and children with RCLP (p<0.01). Children with RCLP had significantly poorer PCC-R scores. Affricate consonants were most affected followed by stops and fricatives.

Key words: PCC-R scores, pressure consonant, Kannada, repaired cleft lip & palate.

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