International Journal of Health Sciences and Research

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Original Research Article

Year: 2018 | Month: August | Volume: 8 | Issue: 8 | Pages: 74-80

Prevalence of M. Tuberculosis Complex Isolates amongst Cases of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in a Tertiary Care Centre in Central Kerala

Sreeja Nair1, Dr Seema Oommen2, Dr Vidya Pai3

1Tutor, 2Professor and Head,
Department of Microbiology, Pushpagiri Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Tiruvalla, Kerala.
3Professor and Head, Department of Microbiology, Yenepoya Medical College, Yenepoya University, Mangalore, Karnataka.

Corresponding Author: Dr Seema Oommen


Introduction: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is an important health problem. About 25% of all the tuberculosis cases are manifested as extrapulmonary. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence and drug resistance profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis attending a tertiary care centre in Central Kerala.
Materials and methods: A prospective study was conducted in Pushpagiri Medical College, Tiruvalla, Kerala from November 2015 to October 2017. During this period, 216 site-specific samples were collected from patients with clinical suspicion of EPTB. Specimens were subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N) staining and culture using liquid (BD BACTECTM Micro MGITTM {Mycobacteria Growth Indicator tube}) and solid (Lowenstein Jensen) media. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) for streptomycin (S), isoniazid (I), rifampicin (R), ethambutol (E) and pyrazinamide (PZA) were performed on all culture positive isolates using the Micro MGIT.
Results: Out of 216 extrapulmonary samples, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was isolated in 21 (9.7%) cases by MGIT, 14 (6.4%) by LJ and MGIT while only 4 (1.8%) of the culture-confirmed samples were found to be positive by Z-N staining method. Drug susceptibility testing was done on all the culture positive isolates, of which 7 (33%) were sensitive to all drugs while 3 (14.2%) were multi-drug resistant.
Conclusion: Early diagnosis and timely treatment is of paramount importance for the efficient management of the disease

Key words: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), MGIT (Mycobacterial growth indicator tube), MDR-TB (Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis).

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