Year: 2018 | Month: June | Volume: 8 | Issue: 6 | Pages: 308-314
A Review into Biochemistry of Metabolic Syndrome (Met S)
Padmanabhan PAssociate Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Rural Medical College, Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (DU), Loni 413736, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India
Metabolic Syndrome (Met S) is an emerging health problem and affects approximately 20-25% of the population globally. The syndrome is also described as “Syndrome X”, “The Deadly Quartet” and “The Insulin Resistance Syndrome”. Physical inactivity, intake of an atherogenic and diabetic diet is risk factors leading to the syndrome (Met S). Clinical symptoms of the disease are obesity, dysglycemia, elevated blood pressure, increased triglycerides levels, decreased levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, pro-inflammatory and thrombotic states. Insulin resistance and obesity are considered as the main reasons for the development of Metabolic Syndrome (Met S). Biochemical biomarkers which aid as indicators are leptin, adiponectin, leptin: adiponectin ratio, plasminogen activator inhibitor-I, uric acid, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin -10, oxidized LDL and paraoxonase- I.
Metabolic Syndrome (Met S) shows specific biochemical effects in the human body and the metabolic abnormalities can be explained genetically by two hypotheses. Various types of diet have their effects on Metabolic Syndrome (Met S). Overall whole, unprocessed plant foods rich in phytochemicals are considered to provide immense benefit. There are also some single nutrients and bioactive compounds which provide direct benefits like ascorbate, hydroxytyrosol, quercetin, resveratrol, tocopherol and anthocyanins.
Changes in lifestyle which includes proper pharmacological treatment, dietary changes promoting weight loss, prevention of obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, decreased salt and alcohol intake prove beneficial in management of Metabolic Syndrome ( Met S). Thus, the syndrome although multifactorial causing immense morbidity and mortality can be treated by effective management of such patients.
Key words: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), Syndrome X, Deadly Quartet, The Insulin Resistance Syndrome, Biochemical markers.