Original Research Article
Year: 2018 | Month: April | Volume: 8 | Issue: 4 | Pages: 45-54
Incidence of Rotavirus Infection and Associated Risk Factors among Children Under 5 Years in Eritrea
Dr. J. John Prabakaran1, Matiwos Araya2, Alexander Ghebrihiwet2, Mibrak Andom2, Yohana Teklemariam2, Samuel Yosief2, Metkel Neamn2
1Associate Professor, 2Graduate Assistants
Dept. of Biomedical Sciences (Microbiology Unit), School of Allied Health Professions, Asmara College of Health Sciences, Asmara, Eritrea, North East Africa. P.O. Box-8566.
Corresponding Author: Dr. J. John Prabakaran
Background: Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe and fatal diarrhoea in African children. The main objective of the study was to determine the incidence of rotavirus among children less than 5 years old attending Orotta Pediatric Referral and Mendefera Hospitals in Eritrea and determine the possible associated risk factors that could expose them to rotavirus infection.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between January to June 2015.Out of 82 children who satisfied the inclusion criteria, 45(54.9%) were male and the remaining 37(45.1%) were female with the ratio of 1.2:1. Stool samples collected from the children were subject for detection of rotavirus antigen using enzyme linked immune sorbent assay. A standardized researcher-administered questionnaire for demographic data collection, clinical manifestation and associated risk factors for rotavirus infection was used.
Results: Out of 82 subjects 8(9.8%) were positive while the remaining 74(90.2%) were negative. The male: female ratio was 1.2:1 with largest proportion of cases among children greater than 6 months old. Possible risk factors from all the participants and caretakers were assessed and associated with the results. The association of risk factors with ELISA results indicated that there is no statistically significant association with a p-value of greater than 0.05. Out of 8 rotavirus diarrhea cases, 3 (3.7%) showed vomiting only while remaining 5(6%) had vomiting along with fever and severe dehydration. None of them showed upper respiratory infection.
Conclusion: Rotavirus was found to be an etiologic agent of acute watery diarrhea in children in this study even though vaccine has been introduced in mid-2014 as preventative measure in controlling rotavirus infection.
Key words: Rotavirus, diarrhea, children, ELISA, Eritrea.