Original Research Article
Year: 2018 | Month: January | Volume: 8 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 68-76
Bacteriological Quality of Household Drinking Water and Water Disinfection Practices in Kinondoni Municipality, Tanzania
K. D. Mwambete1, V. P. Tairo2
1Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health & Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
2Department of Pharmacy, Temeke Regional Referral Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Corresponding Author: K. D. Mwambete
Background: The bacteriological quality of household drinking water (HDW) and waterborne diseases are the main public health concerns in resource-limited countries, including Tanzania. Despite widespread use of water disinfection methods, prevalence rates of waterborne diseases like cholera, dysentery, and typhoid are still high.
Objectives: This study aimed to determine bacteriological quality of HDW used by residents of Kinondoni Municipality, in Dar-es-Salaam, and investigate on awareness and attitude towards commonly used HDW treatment methods.
Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study conducted from January to June 2016. Water samples were collected from HDW sources and subjected to presumptive coliforms count followed by Escherichia coli confirmation. Interviews were used to investigate residents’ awareness and attitude towards HDW treatment and storage practices (HTSP).
Results: Regression analysis predicted effects of isolated bacteria on incidences of water-borne infections. Neither types of isolated bacteria nor bacterial counts had significant associations with the prevalence of water-borne infections (p= 0.86). Prevalence of water-borne infections among household members had no associations with water storage means (p= 0.44). Combination of chemical disinfectants and filtration was the most effective water treatment methods. The most frequently isolated coliforms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (45%) and Klebsiella (25%). Over 50% of water samples exceeded acceptable limits of coliform bacteria counts.
Conclusion: High levels of coliform counts were revealed in HDW that could be attributed to poor storage and non-use of treated drinking water. Boiling of HDW killed all coliform bacteria. Satisfactory awareness of the importance of water disinfection was noted among the residents.
Key words: household water contamination, coliform bacteria, disinfection methods