Original Research Article
Year: 2017 | Month: Aug | Volume: 7 | Issue: 8 | Pages: 290-295
The Role of Cytochemistry in the Diagnosis of Acute Leukemias
Glaucia Aparecida Domingos Resende1, Miriane da Costa Gileno2, Helio Moraes-Souza3,
Aline Menezes Carlos4, Alexandra Silva Leal4, Paulo Roberto Juliano Martins5
1Biomédica, with specialization in Hematology and Hemotherapy, doctoral student in the Health Sciences, Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro / UFTM, Brazil
2Professora in the Postgraduate Program in Biotechnology in Regenerative Medicine and Medicinal Chemistry of the University of Araraquara, Brazil
3Professor of the Hematology and Hemotherapy Section Department of Medicine, Federal University of the Triangulo Mineiro / UFTM, Brazil
4Biomédical, doctoral student in the Health Sciences, Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro / UFTM, Brazil
5Associate Professor IV of the Discipline of Hematology and Hemotherapy - Federal University of the Minas Gerais Triangle / Coordinator of the Hemocentro Regional of Uberaba - Hemominas Foundation, Brazil
Corresponding Author: Glaucia Aparecida Domingos Resende
Introduction: Acute leukemias are clonal disorders of the hematopoietic tissue, characterized by proliferation of immature cells in the bone marrow and maturative block.
Objective: To verify if the cytochemical stains offer contributions for the diagnosis of Acute leukemias.
Materials and methods: Sixty-seven patients with suspected clinical and hematological acute leukemia (AML), attended the Department of Hematology and Hemotherapy of the Federal University of the Triângulo Mineiro / UFTM. Patients were aged from two to ninety-three years old, with median of 29.0. The study used morphological analysis, cytochemical staining of myeloperoxidase (MPO), Sudan Black (SBB), Schiff's Periodic Acid (PAS) and alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE), as well as immunophenotyping.
Results: Cytochemical staining (associated with morphology) was diagnosed in 89.5% of cases. MPO was positive in 30 of the 36 AML cases(83.33%). SBB was positive in 29 of 35 cases (82.9%.) Both reactions (MPO and SBB) were negative for the 31cases (100%) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The PAS was positive in 31 of cases(100%) of ALL and in one of AML (3.2%) who was also positive for MPO and SBB with monocytoid blasts to morphological analysis.
Immunophenotyping confirmed that the staining of ANAE processed in 10 cases of suspected monocytic leukemia cases showed positivity in 7 of the 10 cases (70%).
Conclusion: Significanlty, cytochemistry associated with morphology differentiates most of the myeloid lymphoid leukemias. Thus, based on this study and considering the initial impact on prognosis and therapeutic choice, we believe that cytochemistry continues to play an important role in the distinction between these leukemias
Key words:Leukemia; Cytology; Cytochemistry; Immunophenotyping