Original Research Article
Year: 2017 | Month: June | Volume: 7 | Issue: 6 | Pages: 6-10
Nutritional Factors and Vitamin D Status in Relation to Severity of Pneumonia among Children
Dr. Priya PS1, Dr. Elizabeth KE2
1Junior Resident, 2Professor & Head,
Dept. of Pediatrics, SAT Hospital, Govt. Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India-695011
Corresponding Author: Dr. Elizabeth KE
Objective: To compare nutritional factors like Infant & Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices, nutritional status and serum vitamin D levels with severity of pneumonia among 1-5-year-old children.
Methods: Children admitted with severe and very severe pneumonia, as per IMNCI guidelines were enrolled. Their nutritional status including IYCF practices and serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were compared.
Results: Out of 78 children, 40 (51%) had severe and 38 (49%) had very severe pneumonia. Socio-demographic factors and nutritional status were comparable in the two groups (P>0.05). Majority, 22/ 34 (65%) with non-exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, 7/9 (78%) with duration of breastfeeding <4 months of age and 26/37 (70%) among those with previous admission for pneumonia had very severe pneumonia (P < 0.05). Vitamin D was suboptimum or deficient in 37 (48%). 25/37 (68%) in this category had very severe pneumonia (P <0.01); 10/11 in the deficient, 6/6 in the severely deficient and 3/3 in the very severely deficient group had very severe pneumonia (P <0.001). 34/37 (92%) with previous history of pneumonia were in the deficient group (P <0.001).
Conclusion: Very severe pneumonia was significantly more in those with non-exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, duration of breastfeeding <4 months of age, previous admission with pneumonia and vitamin D deficiency. Very severe pneumonia was more in those with more severe vitamin D deficiency. Nutritional aspects like IYCF practices and vitamin D status being modifiable factors, the results of the study are of utmost public health importance.
Key words: Severity of Pneumonia, IYCF practices, Nutritional status, Vitamin D Deficiency