International Journal of Health Sciences and Research

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Original Research Article

Year: 2017 | Month: October | Volume: 7 | Issue: 10 | Pages: 47-53

Ocular Chlamydia Trachomatis Prevalence in Jamaica

Dr Sandra Jackson1,2, Dr Lizette Mowatt2,3, Dr Karen Roye-Green1,2, Dr Maynard Mc Intosh4

1Virology Division, Microbiology Department, University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI), Mona, Jamaica
2Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica
3Ophthalmology Division, Department of Surgery, Anaesthesia, Radiology and Intensive Care, UHWI, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica
4Eyelite Optical Ja. Ltd., St. Joseph's Hospital, Kingston, Jamaica

Corresponding Author: Dr Lizette Mowatt


Objectives: To determine the prevalence of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections among patients with infectious conjunctivitis and assess the Trachoma spectrum manifestations in Jamaica.
Method: Cross-sectional sampling of suspect cases of person’s aged >1 month, was conducted over a 4 month period at 3 health care facilities. Patients with conjunctivitis were recruited and conjunctival swabs were collected. Molecular detection with extraction of DNA from conjunctival swabs using Sacace™ Chlamydia trachomatis DNA-Sorb-A (REF K-1-1/A) was done. Amplification and qualitative detection was performed using the Sacace™ Chlamydia trachomatis Real-TM assay. Samples were tested for the presence of other bacterial pathogens using standard microbiological protocols.
Results: Seventy eight eye swabs were collected. Female to male distribution was 52.9% and 47.1% respectively. Of the 78 cases, 34 were randomly tested by PCR for the presence of Chlamydia. PCR Chlamydia tests were positive in 11.8% (4/34). Gram positive bacteria (GPB) and gram-negative bacteria (GNB) were detected in 55.1% (43/78) of cases. Of these 60.5% (26/43) were GPB and 32.6% (14/43) were GNB. Mixed infections (GPB and GNB) accounted for 7% (3/43) of cases. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) was the most commonly detected organism in 41.8% (18/43) of cases. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, most frequently detected GNB was in 35.7% (5/14) of cases.
Conclusion: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection was 11.8% amongst chronic conjunctivitis. Jamaica is in accordance with the World Health Organization Ultimate Intervention Goals for blinding trachoma elimination status. Monitoring and laboratory detection of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis needs to be continued.

Key words: Chlamydia trachomatis, conjunctivitis, trachoma, Jamaica

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